Why Do External Thermal Insulation Materials Always Cause Fires?

At present, the building external wall insulation material is one of the important items for sampling interior finish materials, which is closely related to their frequent occurrence of fire accidents. For example, the fire in CCTV building originated from the use of non-flammable organic insulation materials. These materials produce a large amount of smoke and toxic gases due to incomplete combustion and pyrolysis during fires, and most people in fire accidents may suffocate by inhaling these smoke and toxic gases. Therefore, the fire risk caused by building external wall insulation material is very high, which is easy to cause major casualties. And based on work experience, the author discusses the causes for the fire and preventive measures. Firstly, the industry standards are not sound, and the product quality is uneven. At present, the production and use of external insulation materials are chaotic. And the organic insulation materials currently used in the building field mainly include polystyrene board (EPS), extruded polystyrene board (XPS), and polyurethane (PU), whose greatest strengths are that they are lightweight, good in insulation and thermal insulation. And their biggest weaknesses include poor fire safety, easy aging and flammable. The first two are widely used due to their low prices, while the latter is slightly superior in terms of thermal conductivity, construction performance, and combustion performance. The industry standards for external insulation materials are not yet sound, and some manufacturers have loopholes in management. The external insulation materials produced cannot meet the design requirements of building fire protection, and the fire resistance grade and limit cannot meet the national standards. After the product is put on the market, congenital safety risks are posed for building fire accidents. Secondly, the construction cycle is long and there are numerous hidden dangers at the construction site. For the construction industry, energy conservation and insulation is the national policy, and wall insulation is an important means to realize building energy conservation, thus building insulation materials are widely used. In reality, the construction period of high-rise buildings, large-scale stadiums and other buildings is generally two to three years, during which various construction processes alternate with each other and are inconvenient to manage. Some management personnel neglect the investigation and rectification of on-site fire hazards and the setting of temporary fire water, and focus all their energy on catching up with the construction period and squeezing costs.





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